In 1775, illustrator and engraver Jean-Michel Moreau first painted the ‘Goddess of Liberty’ but became popular in 1792, when France’s First Republic was established. Marianne, or Marie-Anne, the name given because of the popularity of the name with the working classes, is most commonly shown wearing a Phrygian cap. This cap was originally worn by liberated Roman slaves and was a symbol of Libertas, the Goddess of liberty. The ‘liberty cap’ came to signify freedom and the pursuit of liberty, first in the American Revolution and twenty years later in the French Revolution.
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